17+ douglas bewerbung
By Harrison Smith Harrison Smith Obituary biographer Email Bio Follow December 13, 2018
The aboriginal chat processor, as cultural analyzer Josephine Livingstone already wrote, was finer “the animal woman” — employed, as a secretary, to compose, alter and book abundance of letters, reports, affairs and memos in offices about the country.
By the backward 1960s, according to one appraisal from the Bureau of Labor Statistics, secretaries fabricated up 6 percent of the U.S. workforce. And the job, banal as it could be, seemed to action no way out. Sexism generally blocked women from advancement. The assignment itself was about all-consuming.
But in December 1971, a annual advertisement offered a able eyes of the future. Published in the countdown affair of a new advertisement alleged Ms., co-founded by a New York annual announcer alleged Gloria Steinem, the ad was accent “The Death of the Blocked Secretary.” It positioned a 40-inch-tall accounting apparatus alleged the Abstracts Secretary, awash by the Redactron Corp., as a apparatus for women’s empowerment.
“Unlike your conceited sisters of the antecedent generation,” it said, “you appetite the abandon to get into added absorbing and arduous assignment — assignment that’ll accord you the adventitious to move into a staff, authoritative or authoritative position — breadth you can alarm some of the shots.”
“With the development of automated alteration typewriters and chat processing systems,” the advertisement added, “the altitude of blocked accounting accept been about eliminated.” Readers, it noted, could abode to Redactron’s admiral to accept “FREE announcement pads, buttons and stickers” account “Free the Secretary.”
[Dennis Ritchie, architect of Unix and C, dies at 70]
Ms. Berezin in 2015, back she was inducted into the Computer History Museum’s Hall of Fellows. (Matt Beardsley/Computer History Museum)
It was abnormal abundant for the ad to accommodate the president’s name and address. Added arresting still was the name itself: Evelyn Berezin, a physicist, computer architect and administrator — a changeable abstracted in a tech industry bedeviled by men.
Ms. Berezin advised some of the ancient computer systems for banks, airlines, banal exchanges and horse tracks. And back sex bigotry adjourned her career, she accustomed her own company, Redactron, and created the Abstracts Secretary. Essentially a computer bearded as a typewriter, it helped conductor in a abstruse anarchy as “the aboriginal banal chat processor,” said Chris Garcia, babysitter at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View, Calif.
Ms. Berezin was 93 back she died Dec. 8 at a auberge centermost in Manhattan. She was diagnosed with lymphoma in contempo months, said her nephew, Marc Berezin, but absitively to abandon treatment.
The alone babe of Jewish immigrants from Russia, Ms. Berezin formed Redactron in 1969 and anon acclimatized on a chat processor as its flagship product. It was a adventurous accommodation that about backfired.
A agnate device, the MT/ST, had been appear by IBM bristles years earlier. Generally alleged the world’s aboriginal chat processor — a appellation IBM’s business aggregation acclimated to call the apparatus — it accumulated a Selectric typewriter with a alluring band drive, enabling users to adapt typed actual afterwards retyping the argument in full. But the accessory was bulky, adamantine to use and expensive.
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Ms. Berezin believed she could accomplish article cheaper and better, advised accurately for secretaries. To do so, she set about creating a apparatus that was absolutely electronic, in adverse to the electromechanical MT/ST. Neither accessory acclimated a screen, employing a Selectric as both the abstracts access point and the printer. But Ms. Berezin’s plan was a “true computer,” according to Matthew G. Kirschenbaum’s book “Track Changes: A Literary History of Chat Processing,” application “13 on-board semiconductor chips and programmable logic.”
[Jack Tramiel, active Commodore computer visionary, dies at 84]
Difficulty arose back Intel, which had formed aloof afore Redactron, said it was too active to architecture processor chips for the machine. Ms. Berezin’s aggregation was affected to actualize some of the chips on its own, in a year-long dart to accomplishment the artefact afore Redactron ran out of funding. Then, back a analysis apparatus was assuredly completed, it had so abounding affairs and circuits that it sometimes bristled with changeless electricity.
But aural a year, Ms. Berezin had alien about 1,020 Abstracts Secretaries, at a amount of $6,400 to $8,400, depending on the model. About 10,000 of the machines were ultimately sold, according to Garcia, and the aggregation grew from nine advisers to about 500 as Ms. Berezin active an all-embracing business acceding that brought the Abstracts Secretary to Europe and Australia, and added a adviser and added appearance to afterwards versions.
But as absorption ante rose, the aggregation began to run out of cash, and in 1976 — the aforementioned year she was featured in a Businessweek account of the country’s top 100 businesswomen — Ms. Berezin awash Redactron to the Burroughs Corp., a arch computer manufacturer.
She remained with the aggregation for several years, but by again it was adverse a bulk of competitors, including chat processors bogus by Xerox, Wang Laboratories and Vydec, an Exxon subsidiary. Back the claimed computer came to bulge in the backward 1970s, paving the way for software applications such as Microsoft Word, single-use chat processors such as the Abstracts Secretary all but vanished.
[Adam Osborne, who alien the aboriginal carriageable claimed computer, dies at 64]
For Ms. Berezin, the apparatus was a alloyed success — a apparatus that assuredly fabricated the lives of secretaries easier, atom endless hours off the assembly of a anatomy letter, but additionally alone jobs that had continued gone to women. Still, she noted, there were affluence of men who did not appetite to save money by eliminating a secretarial position.
“At that time,” she said, “the abstraction that a being who was a administrator ability accord up his secretary because he could do it himself did not exist. The men did not appetite to buy those machines because they were abashed they would lose their secretary, which would beggarly some abatement of cachet for them.”
Evelyn Berezin was built-in in the Bronx on April 12, 1925, and aloft in a awkward accommodation abutting to the animated train, breadth she and her two brothers slept beneath the dining table back ancestors came to visit. Her mother was a seamstress, and her ancestor cut furs for cape coats.
Ms. Berezin developed an absorption in physics afterwards account her oldest brother’s issues of a science fiction magazine, but she advised a job in science to be out of ability because of sexism.
So as a 16-year-old apprentice at Hunter College in Manhattan, she advised economics, planning to become a bookkeeper. During World War II, opportunities for women badly broadcast on the home front, and a aerial academy abecedary offered her a job at a physics aggregation for which he consulted.
Ms. Berezin transferred to New York University, formed by day and took classes by night, and in 1945 accustomed a bachelor’s amount in physics. One year later, she was awarded a acquaintance by the Atomic Energy Commission, enabling her to abstraction for a doctorate. Her focus was on catholic rays.
When her allotment ran out, Ms. Berezin was affected to acquisition a job and absitively to attending in the beginning industry of computing.
[Ted Dabney, Atari co-founder whose engineering paved the way for Pong, dies at 81]
“Where were they architecture computers in New York in 1951?” she anecdotal to the New York Times in 1972. “Well, there was a little aggregation in the Syrian breadth of Brooklyn that assassin me as an engineer. And they said to me, ‘Design a computer.’ I had never apparent one before, hardly anyone abroad had. So I aloof had to amount out how to do it. It was a lot of fun — back I wasn’t terrified.”
Ms. Berezin formed at the Cyberbanking Computer Corp. afore abutting Teleregister, breadth she developed what some historians accept alleged the aboriginal airline catch computer system. Created for United Airlines about 1962, it acclimated three affiliated processors and served 60 cities about the country “with a one-second acknowledgment time and with no axial arrangement failures in over 11 years of operation,” according to the Computer History Museum.
Ms. Berezin larboard Burroughs about 1980 and served as admiral of a $20 million adventure basic fund. She afterwards formed as a administration adviser and sat on aggregation boards.
Her bedmate of 51 years, Israel Wilenitz, a British actinic engineer, died in 2003. She has no actual survivors.
Ms. Berezin was inducted into the Women in Technology Hall of Fame in 2011 and into the Computer History Museum’s Hall of Fellows in 2015.
Her career, she said, would accept taken off 15 years beforehand had she been a man. Still, she said, it helped her that her results, and those of added women in technology, could be apparent and measured, advised in the success of a custom-built computer arrangement or processing chip.
“In this business we allege the accent of mathematics,” she told the Times in 1956. “There’s no appropriate estimation for women.”
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